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LIVES OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE
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This extra page added 4.5.2015.

1422, Private Joseph George DOUGHTON - 13th Light Dragoons

War as Entertainment: Crimea Exhibitions, 1855-7



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On the title page of his memoir, Narrative of Joseph Doughton, late of Her Majesty's 13th Light Dragoons, one of the heroes wounded at Balaclava in the Gallant Cavalry Charge, published in Birmingham in 1856, is an intriguing advert for "Wladislaw's Exhibition of the Late War with Russia". What was Wladislaw's Exhibition like? Did Doughton work for Wladislaw's? If so, what exactly did he do?

I'd put the puzzle on the back burner for quite a while until, in April 2015, we were contacted from New Zealand by Rowan Gibbs. While researching the Hamilton family he had come across a number of references to Joseph Doughton's appearances not with Wladislaw's but with Hamilton's Grand Moving Panorama of the War with Russia in 1855-6. So far as he could tell, Doughton had never worked for their rivals Wladislaw's. Curiouser and curiouser.

However, a fairly intensive study of periodical press of the period was eventually very rewarding. Initially it seemed that Doughton was only linked with Hamilton's Grand Moving Panorama of the War with Russia, which made the advert even more puzzling, but it then transpired that he had worked for both parties, and indeed briefly for a third, Lancaster's Magnificent Panorama of the Late War. His moves between rival shows is of some interest, and illuminates a number of aspects of travelling popular entertainments immediately after the Crimean War.

It is worth starting with Rowan Gibbs's initial letter (April 2015). While researching the Hamilton family, proprietors of the Grand Moving Panorama, he had come across a number of references to Joseph Doughton in 1855-6:

Doughton made appearances on stage with "Hamilton's Grand Moving Panorama of the War with Russia" (also advertised as "Hamilton's Grand Moving Panorama of the Seat of War"), giving a commentary on Russian trophies that were on display.

He was in Birmingham with the panorama in September 1855 (Aris's Birmingham Gazette, 3 September 1855, p.3), "one of the wounded heroes of the gallant Cavalry Charge at Balaklava".

The panorama toured for several years and he may have toured with them, which would account for his moving around a lot. He still seems to be with them in Northampton in March 1856 (Northampton Mercury, 22 March 1856 p.3; not named).

However he is not mentioned in Leeds in August 1856, and in 1857 they seem to have had another (unnamed) commentator, "one of the 11th Hussars" (Blackburn Standard, 20 May 1857, p.2; Burnley Advertiser, 4 July 1857, p.2).

[RG]

[PB: If this is not a reporting error (see below for evidence that he was still with the Panorama in 1857), I wonder who this 11th Hussar was?]

Something of the nature of Hamilton's Panorama, and of Doughton's role in performances, can be seen in the two advertisements and the subsequent review published in the Leicester Journal in early February 1856:



"The gallant hero wounded in the Light Cavalry Charge at the Battle will give his authentic and thrilling description to the Panorama, and exhibit an interesting collection of RUSSIAN TROPHIES from the Crimea" (Leicester Journal, 1 February 1856).

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"A Descriptive Lecture will be given to the Panorama by JOSEPH DOUGHTON, late of Her Majesty's 13th Light Dragoons, one of the Wounded Heroes in the Gallant Light Cavalry Charge at the Battle of Balaklava, under the Earl of Cardigan [...] He will also exhibit his interesting collection of Russian Trophies, brought by himself from the Crimea."

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MESSRS HAMILTON beg to announce to the Gentry, Clergy, and Public of Leicester, the opening of their

GRAND MOVING PANORAMA OF THE WAR WITH RUSSIA

Illustrating the most important Places and Events on the Danube, the Baltic, and the Black Sea, to the Fall of Sebastopol.

A Descriptive Lecture will be given to the Panorama by JOSEPH DOUGHTON, late of Her Majesty's 13th Light Dragoons, one of the Wounded Heroes in the Gallant Light Cavalry Charge at the Battle of Balaklava, under the Earl of Cardigan.

He will also exhibit his interesting collection of Russian Trophies, brought by himself from the Crimea.

The Panorama will be followed by a Magnificent Alpine

DIORAMA OF THE CELEBRATED ASCENT OF MONT BLANC...

There will be two Exhibitions every Evening, the first commencing at Six o'clock, the second at a quarter past Eight. An Afternoon Exhibition on Wednesday, February 6th, at Three o'clock.

Reserved Seats, 1s 6d; Second Seats, 1s; Third Seats, 6d. Children, Half-price.

[Source: Leicester Journal, 8 February 1856.]

The Leicester Journal reviewed the Panorama rather hyperbolically a week later, in which (quite remarkably) it was claimed that Joseph Doughton had been an artist before joining the army, that the images were derived from sketches he had made in situ, and that he had personally painted e.g. a scene in Scutari with Florence Nightingale.



Hamilton's Panorama of the War, as described in the Leicester Journal, 8 February 1856 (transcript below)

"Many of the views were painted by Joseph Doughton, late of the 13th Light Dragoons, who formed one of the gallant 600 led by the Earl of Cardigan at the fatal charge Balaklava, where he was wounded. Mr Doughton, who we may remark, is highly intelligent and soldier-like young man, was an artist by profession before entering the army, and was thus every way qualified to sketch the stirring scenes in which he bore a part. All the views were painted, he informs us, under his superintendence, and it impossible not to be struck by their life-like and spirited execution."

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Hamilton's Panorama of the War

Although the war in which for two years this country has been engaged, is now supposed to be practically at an end, will be long before its scenes and incidents will have faded from our memories, and before the deep and thrilling interest which its successive developments have awakened, has subsided in our breasts.

The locks of the youngest prattler of the group which gathers with eager and tearful eyes around papa when he announces in his newspaper a letter from the Crimea, will be covered with the snows of age ere the names of Alma, lnkermann, and Sebastopol shall have ceased to be remembered.

There is scarcely a family among who has not some dear friend, or at furthest, some friend's friend whose presence has hallowed scenes and places, the very names of which, twelve months ago, were unknown to almost all of us.

And we naturally feel a degree of pleasure realizing the locale of such events, proportioned to their magnitude and importance. This we have already been enabled to do, in some measure, by the glowing and graphic descriptions furnished by the correspondents of the daily papers, and reprinted by the local press through the length and breadth of the land; and to a still greater degree by the engravings in the Illustrated News, but we will venture to say no opportunity has ever presented itself to persons resident elsewhere than in the metropolis of forming so clear a conception of the theatre and principal events of the war, as is now afforded by Messrs. Hamilton's panorama at the New Hall, Wellington-street.

We dislike the use of superlatives [!], but truth and common honesty compel to use them commenting upon the merits of this exhibition. Considered simply as a panorama, it far superior the style of painting and mechanical effects to anything have ever seen out of London.

Many of the views were painted by Joseph Doughton, late of the 13th Light Dragoons, who formed one of the gallant 600 led by the Earl of Cardigan at the fatal charge Balaklava, where he was wounded. Mr Doughton, who we may remark, is highly intelligent and soldier-like young man, was an artist by profession before entering the army, and was thus every way qualified to sketch the stirring scenes in which he bore a part. All the views were painted, he informs us, under his superintendence, and it impossible not to be struck by their life-like and spirited execution.

As the varied phases of the struggle are presented before the eye, from the disembarkation of our troops Varna, to the fearful conflagration which rendered the Allies masters of Sebastopol, emotions of no common order are excited in the spectators.

At one period, the light and joyous step of the soldier from the transport deck on to the soil of the enemy, to the inspiriting sounds of "The Red, White, and Blue" fills the house with thunders of applause; anon, a solemn and subdued silence prevails, as the dead and wounded are borne from the battle-field to the plaintive notes of the Dead March. "The morning after the battle " is, indeed, one of the most powerful of the tableaux presented, and, to our thinking, vividly realizes the account given by Mr Russell, of the Times, the pictorial ability of whose pen this exhibition has led us more than ever to admire.

Among others of the more striking views we may mention the great storm of 1854 in the Black Sea, the city of St. Petersburgh by moonlight, and Miss Nightingale in the hospital of Scutari, the last painted by Mr Doughton, who was himself an inmate of the hospital many weeks, and who speaks in the most glowing terms of the unceasing kindness he received from that excellent lady.

We cannot but hope that since appeals to the eye are said to be more powerful than those addressed to the ear, the effect of this feature of the exhibition may be to add some more names to that of our worthy chief magistrate, which has long appeared in solitude upon the subscription lists for the Nightingale Testimonial.

We must add that an interesting collection of Russian trophies forms part of the exhibition, and these the public are allowed to inspect during the day free of charge. As we find the panorama is announced to remain a short period longer in the town, we shall defer noticing these detail, as well as any criticism upon the ascent Mont Blanc, which forms the second portion of the entertainment, until next week, only remarking of the latter, which we may most truthfully do, that Mr Albert Smith's alone excepted, nothing we have ever seen at all approaches to it.

[Source: Leicester Journal, 8 February 1856.]

This was followed a few weeks later by an article in the Leicestershire Mercury that listed the scenes. The coverage of the war seems quite comprehensive, and includes not just the Crimea but also the war in the Baltic. Notice, incidentally, that the Charge of the Light Brigade does not feature (only that of the Heavy Brigade) - was this simply an editorial error, or did it reflect an absence in Hamilton's exhibition?



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In March 1856 Doughton is probably the unnamed "gallant hero wounded in the Light Cavalry Charge at the Battle" who "will give his authentic and thrilling description to the Panorama" in Northampton (Northampton Mercury, 22 March 1856).

Hamilton's Panorama, featuring Joseph Doughton and full military band. (Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 21 April 1856)

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The Sheffield Dinner, 1856

He also seems to have become a "guest speaker" at this time, for example here is at a "Dinner to Crimean Men, their Wives, Widows, and Children" held in Sheffield in June 1856. The evening clearly had a strong evangelical aspect, which fits closely the spirit of the long poem - presumably written by himself - with which he concluded his Narrative, published that same year.



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"Dinner to Crimean Men, their Wives, Widows, and Children", reported in the Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 10 June 1856.

"[T]he meeting was very appropriately addressed by...Joseph Doughton, late of the 13th Light Dragoons. The latter gave some interesting details of the siege of Sebastopol, including facts which came under his own observation in connection with the ever-to-be remembered Light Cavary charge, in which he was wounded."

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With Wladislaw's Mechanical Panorama of the War in the Crimea, late 1856

The period late-1856 to mid-1857 is particularly intriguing, because Joseph Doughton transferred from Hamilton's Panorama to Wladislaw's Mechanical Exhibition (for which, as noted above, his Narrative included a prominent advert). Curiously, he was described in his new job not as one of the Light Brigade but as a "late private in the 42nd Regiment of Foot".

A "Mechanical Panorama" was a complex combination of "lifelike illustration", a "moving background", "mechanical figures, set in action by machinery", music and sound effects (including violent explosions), and of course a lecture guiding spectators throughout, that were "indescribably affecting". The show evidently successfully induced a range of emotion and expression - for example, the evocation of a "terrific" or "fearful" storm in the Black Sea was so effective that it "caused many to feel on their return to their own fire-sides a degree of comfort scarcely ever before experienced", and prompted "many a sympathetic sigh ... for the brave fellows whose actions and were being delineated".

MECHANICAL EXHIBITION OF THE CRIMEAN WAR

Wladislaw's mechanical panorama of the war in the Crimea is now open in the Temperance-hall, Town head-street, and we can confidently recommend it to the public. Several panoramas of the war have recently visited Sheffield, but the one under notice is certainly superior to them all.

The moving background of the picture is a fair geographical description of the Crimea, and the fore-ground is so arranged as to bring before the audience all the details of the operations of the army and navy. This is effected by exceedingly ingenious mechanical contrivances.

The arrival of the fleet is fairly represented - ships and steamers move about the ocean with all the appearance of reality, and the troops are landed in boats before the eyes of the spectators. The march to the Alma and that memorable engagement is also witnessed, and following this are all the important events up the close of the war. As a work of mechanical ingenuity alone it is unique, and are glad its proprietors are likely to meet with liberal encouragement.

[Source: Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 28 January 1857.]

Sometimes Wladislaw's show was in a sense too lifelike - the explosive effects leading to an actual destruction of the venue, and subsequent calls for compensation:

The beautiful decorative painting of the Assembly room of our Town-hall, executed only a few years ago by Mr. Ward and his family, has, we regret to find, been much injured by the explosions, &c., of Wladislaw's Crimean Exhibition, which visited Devizes few weeks ago, that it is considered absolutely necessary to re-paint a considerable portion of it. The expense of doing this - if it be anything like a work of restoration - will, we are told, cost the borough 35. The sum paid by the proprietor of the Exhibition for a fortnight's use of the room was 6!

[Source: Devizes and Wiltshire Gazette, 6 March 1856, p.3 ]



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Leicestershire Mercury, 1 November 1856.

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WLADISLAW'S MECHANICAL EXHIBITION

This exhibition has been open at the Town Hall Assembly-room during the present week, and has attracted vast numbers to witness the extraordinary mechanical representations of the late war in the Crimea.

The various pictorial views of the war published from time to time, possessed a great and painful degree of interest, but Mr. Wladislaw's life-like illustrations are indescribably affecting. Many a sympathetic sigh was heaved for the brave fellows whose actions and were being delineated, and the audience was so wrought upon that we think if a collection had been made behalf of the national fund, the response would have been liberal.

The storm, which truly "terrific," and perfect as art could make it, caused many to feel on their return to their own fire-sides a degree of comfort scarcely ever before experienced. The exhibition was warmly applauded throughout, and we think fully justifies the confidence expressed by the proprietor, that "it has only to be seen to be appreciated."

[Source: Leicestershire Mercury, 1 November 1856]

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"The interest is greatly enlivened by the descriptive lectures given by Mr. Doughton, who was present at the celebrated light Cavalry charge at Balaclava." - Derby Advertiser, September 27th. (Click on image to enlarge)

MECHANICS' HALL, NOTTINGHAM

Will Open on Monday, Nov. 10th

WLADISLAW'S GRAND MECHANICAL EXHIBITION OF THE WAR IN THE CRIMEA.

Extracts from the Opinions of the Press

"It is unquestionably, of its kind, one of the best attempts at combining Pictorial Art with Mechanical Contrivance we have ever witnessed." - Cheltenham Looker-On, April 20th.

"The Mechanical part of the Exhibition is cleverly and most ingeniously contrived, whilst it faithfully delineates all the leading events of the recent War; commencing with the landing of the troops in the Crimea, to the fearful storm in the Black Sea, and the loss of the 'Prince' and other transports, down to the time of the taking of SebastpoL We can assure our readers it is without exception, the best Panorama ever exhibited in Cheltenham." - Cheltenham Chronicle, May 20th.

"Wladislaw's exhibition has been on view during the past week, to delight spectators, at the National History Room. The whole campaign, including Ships, Fortresses, Horses, Soldiers, and all other incidentals are represented by Mechanical Figures, set in action by machinery. It is the best thing of the kind we have seen, and is deserving of the utmost patronage, as giving the most faithful idea of war that can be gained short of an actual engagement in it" - Worcester Herald, June 14th.

"All the principal events of the Crimean Campaign are here 'movingly' depicted, and the Mechanical contrivances, by which marching Troops, Sailing Ships, Answering Guns, the terrors of the Storm, and the horrors of the assault are made to pass before the eyes of the spectators are exceedingly clever. ?? scene or ?? so vividly ?? remembrance of younger days. " - Worcestershire Chronicle ??.

"We can confidently recommend this interesting Mechanical Exhibition t j public attention and patronage, as being every way deserving of it" - Worcester Journal, June 14th.

"We congratulate the proprietor on the decided success which has resulted from his efforts to pourtray, by agency of Mechanical Figures and Pictorial Art, scenes of universal interest. We recommend a visit to the Exhibition, assuring our readers that they will be pleased with the ingenuity it manifests, and instructed by the knowledge it conveys." - Derby Mercury, September 24th.

"It is truly wonderful and of the highest interest - the Mechanical part is beyond all praise, while the descriptive remarks by the Crimean Hero, Joseph Doughton, are most interesting and striking." - Derby Telegraph, September 27th.

"The Mechanical Exhibition of the late war. Now that the merits of the above superior Exhibition are known - the Derby Temperance Hall has been crowded with delighted audiences every evening. On Wednesday, hundreds were unable to obtain admission. It is an exhibition admirably calculated for the edification, as well as the instruction, of all parties who have not been in the Crimea.

The interest is greatly enlivened by tbe descriptive lectures given by Mr. Doughton, who was present at the celebrated light Cavalry charge at Balaclava." - Derby Advertiser, September 27th.

Reserved Seats, 1s. 6d.; Second Seats, 1s.; Third Seats, 6d. Children under Ten, and Schools, half-price. 3T ?? Doors open at half-past Seven. Exhibition to commence at Eight Carriages to be ordered at Ten. Tickets can be had at the Guardian Office, Long Row.

However, things must have gone awry in his new employment because he was fired in early December 1856 after only three months (i.e. he had joined Wladislaw's in August or September 1856). In January 1857 the parties faced each other in court in Nottingham: Wladislaw's claimed Doughton owed them money for their share of sales of his booklet (which they had financed), while Doughton, in a counter claim, claimed Wladislaw's owed him 5 in lieu of a month's notice when they sacked him. In the absence of witnesses, the court found against Doughton on both counts.

Curiously (and perhaps not coincidentally), during the same week as he was discharged Doughton appeared in court in Nottingham. One of the Russian pistols he had brought back went missing from the Mechanics Hall where they were on show and four young men were accused of stealing them.

A victim of theft?

Doughton is said to have exhibited some of his own mementoes of the Crimea. In Nottingham in December 1856 one of the Cossack pistols he had brought back from the Crimea may have been stolen from the Mechanics' Hall where the show (presumably Wladislaw's) was being held, but it was recovered. Four young men were accused but successfully convinced [police? magistrate?] they had acquired the gun in a pawn shop, having bought the pledge ticket cheaply from a boy. It is impossible to know from this what exactly happened and what involvement Doughton himself had in the affair. ]



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The possible theft of one of Joseph Doughton's Cossack pistols, reported in the Nottinghamshire Guardian, 4 December 1856.

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Doughton v Wladislaw's

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Messrs. Wladislaw and Burgess v. Joseph Doughton late private in the 42nd Regiment of Foot.

Claim 5 16s. 4d. The plaintiffs in this action were the joint proprietors of the Crimean War Exhibition of moving figures lately exhibited in the Mechanics' Hall The defendant was a private soldier who had been engaged in the late war whom the plaintiffs had employed to officiate as descriptive lecturer of their exhibition.

The plaintiffs sought to receive 5 16s. 4d. as due to them by the defendant, being the half proceeds of 2,000 copies of a narrative of his own life which they allowed him to dispose of at his lecture under an arrangement that they were to halve the profits. The plaintiffs were assisted by a solicitor, the defendant conducted his own case.

The plaintiffs said that the lecturer had accounted for one weeks' proceeds of the books, but afterwards declined to do so until his engagement were finished. He, however, had rendered an account up to a certain date of the sale, from which it appeared by a document in his own handwriting that he owed the plaintiffs 4 9s. 4d. Subsequently they had paid for an additional 1000 copies amounting to 1 10s., which amounts, allowing 3s. for waste, made their claim of 5 16s. 4d.

The defendant denied the debt altogether. He said that his arrangement with them was that he should pay for the printing of his narrative and allow the person who assisted the lecturer as pianist 5s. per week out of the proceeds provided he sold 1,000 copies per month. He had been 14 weeks, upwards of three months, with the exhibition and had sold 2,000 copies minus 114, consequently he was not bound to fulfil his agreement as to giving the 5s. per week to the pianist. The defendant had no witnesses and an order was made for the amount.

There was also a cross action by Mr Doughton against Messrs Wladislaw and Burgess for 5 claimed by him as a week's salary and money in lieu of one month's notice which they had not given him when they dispensed with his services. It appeared according to Mr Doughton's statements that Messrs Wladislaw had agreed to give him one month's notice before discharging him, also when engaging him he had stipulated for leave of absence for several days at 2nd December to receive his pension at Birmingham, and that when he came back the proprietors discharged him without notice because he had remained away from Sunday till Friday afternoon.

The defendants denied that they had agreed to allow him several days absence at 2nd December, and said that he had only stipulated for one day, consequently on his return after five days' absence they discharged him in consequence of the great inconvenience and loss to which they had been put and of their having had to engage another lecturer.

The plaintiff had no witnesses to prove the truth of his statement, and judgment was given for the defendants

[Source: Nottinghamshire Guardian, 15 January 1857.]

With Lancaster's Magnificent Panorama of the Late War, January 1857

In January 1857, the same month he appeared in court in Nottingham, Doughton was hired by Lancaster's Panorama (obviously rivals to Hamilton's and Wladislaw's), where he appeared alongside an "Infant Drummer...only six years old ...admitted by all who have heard him to be the greatest musical curiosity in the world" (Nottinghamshire Guardian, 15 January 1857). Notice also he is described as "late the 42nd Regiment of Foot". [I wonder why?]

Doughton's new position was reported in the following week's newspaper:

We are glad to learn that Messrs. Lancaster have availed themselves of the services of Mr Joseph Doughton, late of the 42nd Regiment of Foot, as lecturer to their excellent panorama. Mr Doughton, it will be remembered, was until recently lecturer to Wladislaw's mechanical exhibition, and his description will doubtless add great interest to Messrs. Lancester's entertainment.

I have not determined how long Doughton was with Lancaster's but it appears he had returned to Hamilton's Panorama by July 1857, when he appeared in Burnley. (Doughton is not named but given the reference to his serious injury at Balaclava it is likely to be him.) The reference at the end to "free admission to the children and inmates of the workhouse" suggests custom had fallen away, and this particular panorama was nearing the end of its run.



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"...a highly interesting description is given of the late war, by an intelligent soldier who obtained his discharge in consequence of a serious injury he received in the cavalry charge at Balaklava", Burnley Advertiser, 18 July 1857.

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WLADISLAW'S GRAND MECHANICAL EXHIBITION (some newspaper references)

Salisbury and Winchester Journal - Saturday 01 December 1855 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000361/18551201/006/0002) - brief announcement.

Wiltshire Independent - Thursday 24 January 1856 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000359/18560124/042/0003) - brief anouncement.

Gloucester Journal - Saturday 22 March 1856 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000532/18560322/024/0002) - announcement with outline of programme.

Cheltenham Chronicle - Tuesday 22 April 1856 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000312/18560422/009/0003) - article.

Wladislaw's Exhibition. - We last night paid a visit to Mr. Masters's newly opened public room, called "St. George's Hall," in the High Street, opposite the Grammar School, in order to witness Mr. Wladislaw's Exhibition the War in the Crimea, and found a highly respectable audience, who seemed much pleased with the exhibition, affording as it did an excellent representation the "stern realities of war."

As a work of art it is highly to be commended, possessing as it does much merit, whilst the mechanical contrivances exhibit very considerable ingenuity. We have all the interesting phases of the war in the East placed before us, viz, the arrival of the Allies in Kalimita Bay, the disembarkation of the troops, the heights, and battle of the Alma.

The second part presents us with the seige of Sebastopol, the stirring scenes of Balaklava Harbour, and the taking of the Malakoff and the Redan.

The exhibition is of that character that the visitor may at once derive both information and pleasure from the representation. During the entertainment a lecture, describing the fortifications and the various episodes of the war, which are illustrated by clever models, &c., is given.

The machinery [check text against original here] such large bodies of troops, the bombardment of Sebastopol, and the fearful storm in the Black Sea, is most admirably contrived. The exhibition is every way worthy of a visit.

Cheltenham Chronicle - 6 May 1856 - short article.

Cheltenham Looker-On - Saturday 24 May 1856 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000226/18560524/012/0001) - brief announcement.

Cheltenham Chronicle - Tuesday 27 May 1856 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000312/18560527/020/0003) - article.

Doughton is also mentioned in adverts for Hamilton's Panorama in Huddersfield in May 1856 (The Era, 25 May 1856).

Leicestershire Mercury - Saturday 01 November 1856 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000312/18560527/020/0003) - short article.

Wladislaw's Mechanical Exhibition.

This exhibition has been open at the Town Hall Assembly-room during the present week, and has attracted vast numbers to witness the extraordinary mechanical representations of the late war in the Crimea.

The various pictorial views of the war published from time to time, possessed a great and painful degree of interest, but Mr. Wladislaw's life-like illustrations are indescribably affecting. Many a sympathetic sigh was heaved for the brave fellows whose actions and were being delineated, and the audience was so wrought upon that we think if a collection had been made behalf of the national fund, the response would have been liberal.

The storm, which truly "terrific," and perfect as art could make it, caused many to feel on their return to their own fire-sides a degree of comfort scarcely ever before experienced. The exhibition was warmly applauded throughout, and we think fully justifies the confidence expressed by the proprietor, that "it has only to be seen to be appreciated."

Nottinghamshire Guardian - 6 November 1856

MECHANICS' HALL, NOTTINGHAM

Will Open on Monday, Nov. 10th,

WLADISLAWS GRAND MECHANICAL EXHIBITION OF THE WAR IN THE CRIMEA. Extracts from the Opinions of the Press

"It is unquestionably, of its kind, one of the best attempts at combining Pictoral Art with Mechanical Contrivance we have ever witnessed." - Cheltenham Looker-On, April 20th.

"The Mechanical part of the Exhibition is cleverly and most ingeniously contrived, whilst it faithfully delineates all the leading events of the recent War; commencing with the landing of the troops in the Crimea, to the fearful storm in the Black Sea, and the loss of the 'Prince' and other transports, down to the time of the taking of SebastopoL We can assure our readers it is without exception, the best Panorama ever exhibited in Cheltenham." - Cheltenham Chronicle, May 20th.

[etc.]

Grantham Journal - Saturday 10 January 1857 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000400/18570110/015/0004) - brief announcement.

Mechanical Exhibition of the late War - On Monday, Mr. Wladislaw's exhibition of the war in the Crimea will be opened to the public in the Exchange Hall, High-street. The whole campaign, including ships, fortresses, horses, soldiers, and all other incidentals are represented by figures, set in action by machinery. The Cheltenham, Derby, and Worcestershire papers speak of the exhibition in the highest terms. At Derby, the Advertiser states that hundreds were unable to obtain admission to the Temperance Hall.

Sheffield Daily Telegraph - Friday 23 January 1857 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000250/18570123/062/0001) - brief announcement.

Sheffield Daily Telegraph - Saturday 24 January 1857 p.3

Wladislaw's Exhibition of the War. - This exhibition of scenes from the late war is now on view the temperance hall. The press generally speaks in high terms of it. The Worcester Herald says: "The whole campaign, including ships, fortresses, horses, soldiers, and all other incidentals are represented mechanical figures, set in action by machinery. It is the best thing of the kind we have seen, and is deserving of the utmost patronage, as giving the most faithful idea of war that can be gained short of an actual engagement in it."

Sheffield Daily Telegraph - Wednesday 28 January 1857 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000250/18570128/028/0003) - brief article.

Mechanical Exhibition of the Crimean War.

Wladislaw's mechanical panorama of the war in the Crimea is now open in the Temperance-hall, Town head-street, and we can continently recommend it to the public. Several panoramas of the war have recently visited Sheffield, but the one under notice is certainly superior to them all. The moving background of the picture is fair geographical description of the Crimea, and the fore-ground is so arranged as to bring before the audience all the details of the operations of the army and navy. This is effected exceedingly ingenious mechanical contrivances. The arrival of the fleet is fairly represented - ships and steamers move about the ocean with all the appearance of reality, and the troops are landed in boats before the eyes of the spectators. The march to the Alma and that memorable engagement is also witnessed, and following this are all the important events up the close of the war. As a work of mechanical ingenuity alone it is unique, and are glad its proprietors are likely to meet with liberal encouragement.

Bury and Norwich Post - Tuesday 02 February 1858 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000156/18580202/009/0002)

LANCASTER PANORAMA (some newspaper references)

Nottinghamshire Guardian - Thursday 15 January 1857 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000176/18570115/019/0004)

Nottinghamshire Guardian - Thursday 22 January 1857 (http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000176/18570122/019/0005)

We are glad to learn that Messrs. Lancaster have availed themselves of the services of Mr Joseph Doughton, late of the 42nd Regiment of Foot, as lecturer to their excellent panorama. Mr Doughton, it will be remembered, was until recently lecturer to Wladislaw's mechanical exhibition, and his description will doubtless add great interest to Messrs. Lancester's entertainment.

References & acknowledgements

In April 2015 we were contacted from New Zealand by Rowan Gibbs. While researching the Hamilton family he had come across a number of references to Joseph Doughton's appearances with Hamilton's Grand Moving Panorama of the War with Russia in 1855-6, which he pased on, and also supplied some references to Wladislaw's. We are very grateful to him for contributing this information.

As a result, PB spent some time researching James Doughton's involvement with Moving Panoramas, and wrote two blogs: "War as entertainment (1) - Joseph Doughton, 13th Light Dragoons, and the mid-Victorian travelling panorama" (1 May 2015), and "War as entertainment (2) - Joseph Doughton, and Wladislaw's Mechanical Panorama, 1856" (13 May 2015).


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